Management of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas in Andhra Pradesh: The Perceptions of the Stakeholders

Published date01 December 2023
AuthorG. Varalakshmi
Date01 December 2023
Subject MatterArticles
Management of
Kasturba Gandhi
Balika Vidyalayas in
Andhra Pradesh:
The Perceptions
of the Stakeholders
G. Varalakshmi1
The introduction of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) in the educa-
tionally backward blocks of the country poses challenges for the mobilisation,
retention and educational activities of students. The children admitted to these
schools are different from those of mainstream schools. The socio-economic
background of the girls has been indicating that they are child labourers, never
enrolled, dropout from schools with, risk-ridden family backgrounds, single par-
ents, orphans, migrant workers, labour families, Below Poverty Level (BPL) and
from educational accessibility-denied areas. The Special Officers (SOs), who are
appointed for the management of KGBVs in terms of evolving strategies for
building awareness and mobilisation of girl-child-labour to admit, retain, and
motivate them for education and reaching the goal of educational attainment. In
course of interaction with the SOs, it was found that in discharging their respon-
sibilities, they face several constraints such as service conditions like contract
jobs, low-level of salary, and management issues. Despite having several issues,
the SOs have been working to achieve academic goals.
Educational qualification, training, adolescent girl-children, awareness-building,
mobilisation and retention, academic monitoring, academic performance
Indian Journal of Public
69(4) 861–876, 2023
© 2023 IIPA
Article reuse guidelines:
DOI: 10.1177/00195561231196234
1 Zilla Parishad High School, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Corresponding author:
G. Varalakshmi, Zilla Parishad High School, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh 518003, India.
862 Indian Journal of Public Administration 69(4)
In India, retrospectively, the education of women in general and girl-children in
particular is a neglected problem. Over a period of time, in the post-Independence
period, there has been an increase in percentage of education of women from
well-to-do sections and those who are aware of the importance of education.
However, in the case of low-income groups, excluded social categories and from
backward areas, the existence of girl-child-labour was a problematic phenome-
non. Under this backdrop, the article captures the eld experiences of Special
Ofcer (SO) as head of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) in its
KGBV scheme was launched by the Government of India in 2004 for the
disadvantaged adolescent girls of Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes
(STs) Other Backward Classes (OBCs), Minorities and Economically Weaker
Sections (EWS) based on certain indicators (Ministry of Human Resource
Development, 2013a), which are given below:
1. Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) where the rural female literacy
is below the national average (46.13%: Census 2001) and gender gap in
literacy is more than the national average (21.59: Census 2001). Among
these Blocks, schools may be set up in areas with concentration of tribal
populations with low female literacy and/or a large number of girls out of
2. Concentration of SCs, STs and OBCs, and minority populations, with low
female literacy and/or large number of girls out of schools,
3. Areas with low female literacy,
4. Areas with a large number of small, scattered habitations that do not
qualify for a school,
5. Additional EBBs with rural female literacy below 30%, and
6. Towns/cities having minority concentrations (as per the list identified by
Ministry of Minority Affairs) with female-literacy-rate below the national
average (53.67%: Census 2001). Opening of KGBVs has been extended to
all EBBs during 2010–2011.
As per Government of India sources (Ministry of Human Resource Development,
2013b), 3,609 KGBVs had been sanctioned and number had increased to
3,703 by 2017.
Review of the Literature
Several studies have been conducted on KGBVs by researchers from interna-
tional, national and state-level organisations. These studies are reviewed in a
chronological order here.
The rst National Evaluation Study reveals that most of the KGBVs were
functioning in inadequate and temporary ways and in rented buildings and lacked

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