Large-scale Fortification of Rice in India and Its Distribution in Public Distribution System

Published date01 December 2023
AuthorKavita Kachhawa,Renu Mogra
Date01 December 2023
Subject MatterArticles
Large-scale Fortification
of Rice in India and Its
Distribution in Public
Distribution System
Kavita Kachhawa1 and Renu Mogra2
Rice fortification with micronutrients is getting popularity in supplementation
programmes as it provides cost-effective, easy and public-health-solution to
treat anaemia and protein-energy-malnutrition. In India, A pilot scheme for rice-
fortification and its distribution under Public Distribution System in fifteen dis-
tricts was started for a period of 3 years (2019–2022). To examine effect of
fortified rice on nutritional status of population, its supplementation studies in
Indian government’s social safety programmes were reviewed. The reviewed
studies showed that supplementation of fortified rice was significantly effective
in reducing prevalence of anaemia, increase in haemoglobin level, and improve-
ment in cognitive scores. However, all the reviewed studies were limited only
to supplementation of fortified rice at mid-day meal programme. Thus, it can be
inferred that fortification of rice can be a cost-effective tool to combat anaemia
at community level but more conclusive evidences are still required.
Rice-fortification, cost-effective, anaemia, public distribution system, India
Large-scale or mass food fortication refers to the nutrition-specic intervention
regulated by government to deliberately add one or more essential micronutrients
(forticants) to a staple food or condiment for the purpose of correcting or avoid-
ing micronutrient deciencies in populations that are at increased risk (Keats
et al., 2021). Fortication of staple foods is one of the scientically proven,
cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable global intervention as suggested in the
Copenhagen Consensus that directly targets micronutrient deciency by enrich-
ments of staples with micronutrients (Hoddinott et al., 2012).
Indian Journal of Public
69(4) 779–787, 2023
© 2023 IIPA
Article reuse guidelines:
DOI: 10.1177/00195561231196214
1 Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, MPUAT University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Corresponding author:
Kavita Kachhawa, Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302004,

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