Toward Islam Through Political Parties, Ideology, and Democracy: A Discourse Analysis on Turkey’s AK Party, Tunisian Ennahda, and Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami

DOI10.1177/09735984211019797
Published date01 June 2021
Date01 June 2021
https://doi.org/10.1177/09735984211019797
Jadavpur Journal of
International Relations
25(1) 26 –51, 2021
© 2021 Jadavpur University
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DOI: 10.1177/09735984211019797
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Article
Toward Islam
Through Political
Parties, Ideology,
and Democracy: A
Discourse Analysis on
Turkey’s AK Party,
Tunisian Ennahda, and
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami
Md. Nazmul Islam1, Yılmaz Bingöl1,
Israel Nyaburi Nyadera2 and Gershon Dagba3
Abstract
This article aims to examine the legacy and policy of AK Party in
Turkey, Ennahda’s political movement in Tunisia, and Jamaat-e-Islami
(BJI) in Bangladesh, which is ostensibly identified with Islamic political
ideology and acquainted with the world as a ‘moderate-conservative
political Islam party.’ The study interrogates the nature, processes,
and the characteristic features of the three countries’ administrative
1 Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit
University, Ankara, Turkey
2 Department of Government and Public Administration, University of Macau, Macau,
China
3 Department of Political Science, University of Ghana, Ghana
Corresponding author:
Md. Nazmul Islam, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Ankara
Yildirim Beyazit University, 0670 Ankara, Turkey.
E-mail: nazmulislamglobal71@gmail.com
Islam et al. 27
system, comparatively from three regions of the world, particularly
from the Middle East and Europe region, Africa and Arab region, and
the South Asian region. This study also highlights these political parties’
history, political ideology differences, and their practices reflective of
democratic principles from a theoretical perspective on politics, policy,
and philosophy. It also acknowledges whether the political development
of Turkey from 2002 onward is feasible for Bangladeshi and Tunisian
Islamic political parties to accept as a role model in their political arena.
Keywords
AK Party, Ennahda, Jamaat-e-Islami, political Islam, comparative politics
Introduction
Many scholars from both Western and non-Western countries argue and
attach the label ‘mainstream Islamist,’ ‘moderate conservative,’
‘conservative democracy,’ ‘Muslim democrats,’ post-Islamist and
emerging ‘liberal Islamic parties’ to Islamic values-oriented political
parties, endorsed with secular and democratic values such as Turkey’s
‘AK Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi, the Justice and Development
Party), the Tunisian Harakat Ennahda (Renaissance Movement) and
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (BJI)’ (Bayat 2007; Bokhari and Senzai
2013; Islam, Bingol, and Nyadera 2020; Islam, Onder, and Nyadera
2020; Kosebalaban 2011: 8; Nyadera and Islam 2020a; Özbudun 2006:
543–557; Yilmaz et al. 2017).
The distinguishing feature of the Turkish AK Party is its very decent
legacy and strong connection with the erstwhile Islamic movement
National Outlook (Milli Görüş) and Virtue Party (Fazilet Partisi-FP),
considered as emerging ‘Muslim Democrats’ and ‘post-Islamism’ as a
result of their political ideologies, historical account, and democratic
trajectory. A recent move by Rached al-Ghannouchi, the founder
president of the Ennahda movement in Tunisia, is assumed to initiate a
new transformative institutional process of Muslim Democrats and post-
Islamism. Also, the political ideology and practices of the Jamaat-e-
Islami in Bangladesh are now undergoing a litmus test for post-Islamism
or still traditional and conservative Islam-based political movement in
Bangladesh.

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