Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 16 : Property, Plant and Equipment
1. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment so that users of the financial statements can discern information about an entitys investment in its property, plant and equipment and the changes in such investment. The principal issues in accounting for property, plant and equipment are the recognition of the assets, the determination of their carrying amounts and the depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognised in relation to them.
2. This Standard shall be applied in accounting for property, plant and equipment except when another Standard requires or permits a different accounting treatment.
3. This Standard does not apply to:
(a) property, plant and equipment classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations;
(b) biological assets related to agricultural activity (See Ind AS 41, Agriculture1);
(c) the recognition and measurement of exploration and evaluation assets (see Ind AS 106 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources); or
(d) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.
However, this Standard applies to property, plant and equipment used to develop or maintain the assets described in (b)(d).
4. Other Indian Accounting Standards may require recognition of an item of property, plant and equipment based on an approach different from that in this Standard. For example, Ind AS 17 Leases requires an entity to evaluate its recognition of an item of leased property, plant and equipment on the basis of the transfer of risks and rewards. However, in such cases other aspects of the accounting treatment for these assets, including depreciation, are prescribed by this Standard.
5. An entity accounting for investment property in accordance with Ind AS 40 Investment Property shall use the cost model in this Standard.
1 Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 41, Agriculture, is under formulation.
6. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of the other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction or, where applicable, the amount attributed to that asset when initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements of other Indian Accounting Standards, eg Ind AS 102 Share-based Payment.
Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value.
Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life.
Entity-specific value is the present value of the cash flows an entity expects to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life or expects to incur when settling a liability.
Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arms length transaction.
An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.
Property, plant and equipment are tangible items that:
(a) are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes; and
(b) are expected to be used during more than one period.
Recoverable amount is the higher of an assets fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.
The residual value of an asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life.
Useful life is:
(a) the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity; or
(b) the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by an entity.
7. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:
(a) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and
(b) the cost of the item can be measured reliably.
8. Spare parts and servicing equipment are usually carried as inventory and recognised in profit or loss as consumed. However, major spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment qualify as property, plant and equipment when an entity expects to use them during more than one period..
9. This Standard does not prescribe the unit of measure for recognition, ie what constitutes an item of property, plant and equipment. Thus, judgement is required in applying the recognition criteria to an entitys specific circumstances. It may be appropriate to aggregate individually insignificant items, such as moulds, tools and dies, and to apply the criteria to the aggregate value.
10. An entity evaluates under this recognition principle all its property, plant and equipment costs at the time they are incurred. These costs include costs incurred initially to acquire or construct an item of property, plant and equipment and costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.
11. Items of property, plant and equipment may be acquired for safety or environmental reasons. The acquisition of such property, plant and equipment, although not directly increasing the future economic benefits of any particular existing item of property, plant and equipment, may be necessary for an entity to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets. Such items of property, plant and equipment qualify for recognition as assets because they enable an entity to derive future economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired. For example, a chemical manufacturer may install new chemical handling processes to comply with environmental requirements for the production and storage of dangerous chemicals; related plant enhancements are recognised as an asset because without them the entity is unable to manufacture and sell chemicals. However, the resulting carrying amount of such an asset and related assets is reviewed for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 Impairment of Assets.
12. Under the recognition principle in paragraph 7, an entity does not recognise in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the costs of the day-to-day servicing of the item. Rather, these costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred. Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the costs of labour and consumables, and may include the cost of small parts. The purpose of these expenditures is often described as for the repairs and maintenance of the item of property, plant and equipment.
13. Parts of some items of property, plant and equipment may require replacement at regular intervals. For example, a furnace may require relining after a specified number of hours of use, or aircraft interiors such as seats and galleys may require replacement several times during the life of the airframe. Items of property, plant and equipment may also be acquired to make a less frequently recurring replacement, such as replacing the interior walls of a building, or to make a nonrecurring replacement. Under the recognition principle in paragraph 7, an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the cost of replacing part of such an item when that cost is incurred if the recognition criteria are met. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised in accordance with the derecognition provisions of this Standard (see paragraphs 6772).
14. A condition of continuing to operate an item of property, plant and equipment (for example, an aircraft) may be performing regular major inspections for faults regardless of whether parts of the item are replaced. When each major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the item of property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection (as distinct from physical parts) is derecognised. This occurs regardless of whether the cost of the previous inspection was identified in the transaction in which the item was acquired or constructed. If necessary, the estimated cost of a future similar inspection may be used as an indication of what the cost of the existing inspection component was when the item was acquired or constructed.
Measurement at recognition
15. An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset shall be measured at its cost.
Elements of cost
16. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:
(a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.
(b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
(c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.
17. Examples of directly attributable costs are:
(a) costs of employee benefits (as defined in Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits) arising directly from the construction or acquisition of the item of property, plant and equipment;
(b) costs of site preparation;
(c) initial delivery and...
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