Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 : Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors
1. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the criteria for selecting and changing accounting policies, together with the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of errors. The Standard is intended to enhance the relevance and reliability of an entitys financial statements, and the comparability of those financial statements over time and with the financial statements of other entities.
2. Disclosure requirements for accounting policies, except those for changes in accounting policies, are set out in Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements.
3. This Standard shall be applied in selecting and applying accounting policies, and accounting for changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of prior period errors.
4. The tax effects of corrections of prior period errors and of retrospective adjustments made to apply changes in accounting policies are accounted for and disclosed in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes.
5. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.
A change in accounting estimate is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections of errors.
Indian Accounting Standards Ind ASs are Standards prescribed under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956.
Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.
Prior period errors are omissions from, and misstatements in, the entitys financial statements for one or more prior periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:
(a) was available when financial statements for those periods were approved for issue; and
(b) could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation and presentation of those financial statements.
Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies, oversights or misinterpretations of facts, and fraud.
Retrospective application is applying a new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions as if that policy had always been applied.
Retrospective restatement is correcting the recognition, measurement and disclosure of amounts of elements of financial statements as if a prior period error had never occurred.
Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so. For a particular prior period, it is impracticable to apply a change in an accounting policy retrospectively or to make a retrospective restatement to correct an error if:
(a) the effects of the retrospective application or retrospective restatement are not determinable;
(b) the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires assumptions about what managements intent would have been in that period; or
(c) the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires significant estimates of amounts and it is impossible to distinguish objectively information about those estimates that:
(i) provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date (s) as at which those amounts are to be recognised, measured or disclosed; and
(ii) would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were approved for issue from other information.
Prospective application of a change in accounting policy and of recognising the effect of a change in an accounting estimate, respectively, are:
(a) applying the new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions occurring after the date as at which the policy is changed; and
(b) recognising the effect of the change in the accounting estimate in the current and future periods affected by the change.
6. Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India states in paragraph 26 that It is assumed that users have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and study the information with reasonable diligence. Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.
Selection and application of accounting policies
7. When an Ind AS specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, the accounting policy or policies applied to that item shall be determined by applying the Ind AS.
8. Ind ASs set out accounting policies that result in financial statements containing relevant and reliable information about the transactions, other events and conditions to which they apply. Those policies need not be applied when the effect of applying them is immaterial. However, it is inappropriate to make, or leave uncorrected, immaterial departures from Ind ASs to achieve a particular presentation of an entitys financial position, financial performance or cash flows.
9. Ind ASs are accompanied by guidance to assist entities in applying their requirements. All such guidance states whether it is an integral part of Ind ASs. Guidance that is an integral part of the Ind ASs is mandatory. Guidance that is not an integral part of the Ind ASs does not contain requirements for financial statements.
10. In the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management shall use its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is:
relevant to the economic decision-making needs of users; and reliable, in that the financial statements:
(i) represent faithfully the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the entity;
(ii) reflect the economic substance of transactions, other events and conditions, and not merely the legal form;
(iii) are neutral, ie free from bias;
(iv) are prudent; and
(v) are complete in all material respects.
11. In making the judgement described in paragraph 10, management shall refer to, and consider the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:
(a) the requirements in Ind ASs dealing with similar and related issues; and
(b) the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement concepts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the Framework.
12. In making the judgement described in paragraph 10, management may also first consider the most recent pronouncements of International Accounting Standards Board and in absence thereof those of the other standard-setting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards, other accounting literature and accepted industry practices, to the extent that these do not conflict with the sources in paragraph 11.
Consistency of accounting policies
13. An entity shall select and apply its accounting policies consistently for similar transactions, other events and conditions, unless an Ind AS specifically requires or permits categorisation of items for which different policies may be appropriate. If an Ind AS requires or permits such categorisation, an appropriate accounting policy shall be selected and applied consistently to each category.
Changes in accounting policies
14. An entity shall change an accounting policy only if the change:
(a) is required by an Ind AS; or
(b) results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entitys financial position, financial performance or cash flows.
15. Users of financial statements need to be able to compare the financial statements of an entity over time to identify trends in its financial position, financial performance and cash flows. Therefore, the same accounting policies are applied within each period and from one period to the next unless a change in accounting policy meets one of the criteria in paragraph 14.
16. The following are not changes in accounting policies:
(a) the application of an accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that differ in substance from those previously occurring; and
(b) the application of a new accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that did not occur previously or were immaterial.
17. The initial application of a policy to revalue assets in accordance with Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets is a change in an accounting policy to be dealt with as a revaluation in accordance with Ind AS 16 or Ind AS 38, rather than in accordance with this Standard.
18. Paragraphs 1931 do not apply to the change in accounting policy described in paragraph 17.
Applying changes in accounting policies
19. Subject to paragraph 23:
(a) an entity shall account for a change in accounting policy resulting from the initial application of an Ind AS in accordance with the specific transitional provisions, if any, in that Ind AS; and...
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