HRD climate, HRD systems & OCB: linkages conceptualization, measure & model fit.

AuthorJain, Sheelam
PositionOrganizational citizenship behavior - Human Resource Development - Report - Abstract


Employees who are given adequate opportunities and favorable environment for their professional development, who are well trained and are well entrusted by their organizations, and whose performance is well analyzed and appreciated are likely to perform their jobs with a sense of belongingness and ownership. From a social exchange perspective (Blau, 1964), the positive benefits of a supportive work environment enjoyed by employees obligate them to reciprocate with behaviors that benefit the organization. Social exchange is based on an implicit agreement between the employee and the employer, referred to as a psychological contract (Rousseau, 1998). Psychological contracts are governed by the norm of reciprocity and have been shown to play an important role in determining organizational behavior (Garrow, 20u4).On fulfillment of their developmental needs, employees can choose to reciprocate in the workplace by developing an emotional attachment to the organization in the form of exerting extra effort in performing job-related tasks (Meyer. Paunonen & Gellatly, 1989). These reciprocal behaviors by individuals that go beyond their formal duties play a key role in increasing the effectiveness, efficiency, and positive climate in the workplace. Thus, organizational developmental practices such as supportive HRD climate, development oriented performance appraisal, training opportunities and employee empowerment foster employees' shared perceptions of a supportive developmental climate that motivates discretionary behaviors which contribute to the organizational performance. Such discretionary behavior is known as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Organ (1997) defined OCB as, "performance that supports the social or psychological environment in which the task performance takes place." Gong, Cheng and Cheung (2010) have empirically found out that a firm's investment in high- performance work systems such as selective hiring, participation in decision making, high pay based on firm performance, extensive training, career planning and advancement and regular performance appraisals enhances collective organizational citizenship behaviors at middle management level. Earlier studies have also claimed that high performance HR practices are linked to increasing organizational citizenship behaviors (Sun, Aryee & Law, 2007; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000). As the effects of HR systems are often described as occurring through individual-level variables, researchers have suggested the need to better understand the influence of HR systems on employees and the relationships formed among them (Becker & Huselid, 2006). Responding to this call, we have developed a framework, grounded on social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity, relating employees' perceptions of HRD climate, performance appraisal systems, employee training and employee empowerment to behavioral outcome of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

Review of Literature

A number of research studies indicate toward positive link between organizational climate / psychological climate / HRD climate and organizational citizenship behavior. (It is generally recognized that psychological climate and HRD climate are the parts of organizational climate.) The Indian study carried out by Randhawa & Kaur (2015) indicated a strong positive correlation between organizational climate and OCB and climate dimensions such as supervisory support, performance feedback, autonomy, and employee participation in decision making etc. were found to have a significant impact on OCB. In a Chinese study of Wang, Zhang & Jackson (2013), several dimensions of organizational climate were found as positive predictors of psychological empowerment. The results of the study carried out by Teh, Boerhannoeddin & Ismail (2012) reveal that the various dimensions of organizational climate have a significant impact on the OCB of the employees. A recent study carried out by Jain & Jain (2014) show that organizational climate has positive and significant effect on OCB. In the study by Biswas (2010), psychological climate was found to be an antecedent of OCB. Prior research indicates that employee empowerment and performance appraisal process have positive relationship with OCB. In earlier researches (e.g., Moorman, 1993; Deckop, Mangel & Cirka, 1999; Bhatnagar & Sandhu, 2005) it was found that managers who perceive psychological empowerment in their occupational environment exhibit organizational citizenship behavior. In the studies by Raub & Robert (2007), Jain & Jain (2014), Chan, Nadler & Hargis (2015), and Kasekende (2016), employee empowerment was found to be positively related to OCB. Extant research (e.g., Zheng, Zhang, & Lee, 2012; Gong et al., 2010; Findley, Mossholder & Guiles, 2000; Norris-Watts & Levy, 2004) indicates that organizational citizenship behavior has been theoretically and empirically tied to performance appraisal context. In prior research (e.g., Jain & Jain, 2014; Findley, Mossholder & Giles 2000; Norris-Watts & Levy, 2004), performance appraisal (PA) process has been found to have significant impact on OCB. Ahmed et al. (2011) found that fairness in PA process is positively and significantly related to OCB. Norris-Watts & Levy (2004) found that performance feedback is associated with OCB through affective commitment. In the study by Zheng, Zhang, & Hai Li (2012), the relationship between performance appraisal process and organizational citizenship behavior was partially mediated by affective commitment, and perceived rating-reward linkage strengthened the direct association between appraisal process and organizational citizenship behavior whereas it weakened the relationship between appraisal process and affective commitment. The findings of the study carried out by Ahmed, Khushi & Islam (2013) indicate that there is significant and positive relationship between perceived fairness in performance appraisal and OCB while organizational commitment mediates this relationship. There is dearth of studies examining the relationship between perceptions of training and work attitudes (Santos & Stuart, 2003) and behaviors such as OCB. However, Lam, Chen & Takeuchi (2009) found that formalized training is positively related to the engagement of OCB.

Conceptual Framework

The extant research investigating inter-linkages between HRD climate, HRD systems and OCB is very limited and particularly Indian studies are rare as it is clear from the review of literature presented in the foregoing paragraph. However, the review of previously published studies give some indications toward possible links between HRD climate, HRD systems such as performance appraisal, employee-training and employee-empowerment as well as between such HRD systems and OCB. Taking clue from such indications "A Conceptual Framework of HRD Climate, HRD Systems and OCB" (Fig. 1) has been developed to test the same in Indian setting.

Key Terms Used

HRD Climate (HRDC): HRDC is the supportive climate that is essential for proper implementation of HRD...

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