Constitution of India, 1950
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPU B LIC] and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LI B ERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all;
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the2[unity and integrity of the Nation];
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEM B LY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HERE B Y ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
1. Substituted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, section 2, for "SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC" (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
2. Substituted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, section 2, for "unity of the Nation" (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
Part 1 - THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
Article 1 - Name and territory of the Union
( 1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
1[( 2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule].
( 3) The territory of India shall comprise-
(a) The territories of the States;
2[(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and]
(c) such other territories as may be acquired.
1. Substituted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, section 2, for clause (2).
2. Substituted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, section 2, for sub-clause (b).
Article 2 - Admission or establishment of new States
Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions, as it thinks fit.
Article 1 [2A. Sikkim to be associated with the Union
[Rep. by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, section 5 (w.e.f. 26 - 4 - 1975).]]
1. Inserted by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, section 2 (w.e.f. 1-3-1975).
Article 3 - Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
Parliament may by law-
(a) Form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;
(b) increase the area of any State;
(c) diminish the area of any State;
(d) alter the boundaries of any State;
(e) alter the name of any State;
1[Provided that no B ill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the B ill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States2[** *], the B ill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.]
3[Explanation I.- In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), "State" includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, "State" does not include a Union territory.
Explanation II.- The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.]
1. Substituted by the Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955, section 2, for the proviso.
2. The words and letters "specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule" omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, section 29 and Schedule.
3. Inserted by the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, section 2.
Article 4 - Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters
(1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary.
(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
Part 2 - CITIZENSHIP
Article 5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
At the commencement of this Constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and--
(a) who was born in the territory of India; or
(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India.
Article 6 - Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if--
(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and
(b) (i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or
(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefore to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government:
Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.
Article 7 - Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan
Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:
Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.
Article 8 - Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefore to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.
Article 9 - Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens
No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.
Article 10 - Continuance of the rights of citizenship
Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.
Article 11 - Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law
Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.
Part 3 - FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
Article 12 - Definition
In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
Article 13 - Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Pan, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.
(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a) "law" includes any Ordinance, order, bye-la w, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having in the territory of India the force of law;
(b) " laws in force" includes laws passed or made by Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation...
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